top of page

GCSE English Literature: An Overview of "A Christmas Carol"

Victorian street at night, representing Scrooge's house from A Christmas Carol

Charles Dickens' timeless novella, "A Christmas Carol," is not just a classic, festive tale but a profound exploration of human nature.

Its key messages about the importance of love, goodwill and the transformative power of redemption are just as relevant today as when it was first published in December 1843.


Set in Victorian London, the novella introduces us to the notorious Ebenezer Scrooge, a miserly businessman who has no interest in the

real spirit of Christmas, cares only for wealth and has little compassion for those less fortunate.


One fateful night, Scrooge is visited by the ghost of his deceased business partner, Jacob Marley, who warns him of the consequences of his heartless ways. As the clock strikes midnight, Scrooge encounters the first of three ghosts who take him on a memorable journey through significant moments in his life.


The Ghost of Christmas Past forces Scrooge to revisit his childhood and confront his own negligence towards his family, friends and employees as a younger man. This is the beginning of Scrooge’s transformation as he starts to realise the profound impact of his actions, the importance of valuing relationships and cherishing the moments that truly matter.


Moving on to the present day, the Ghost of Christmas Present shows Scrooge the lives of those around him in Victorian London, especially his nephew and the struggles and joys of the humble Cratchit family.


Ultimately, filled with regret and fear, Scrooge finally understands the need for change and vows to help others less fortunate than himself.

Main Characters

Older Victorian gentleman, wearing a top hat and representing Scrooge from A Christmas Carol

Ebenezer Scrooge


The protagonist of the story, Ebenezer Scrooge, is the epitome of miserliness and bitterness at the start of the novella and his famous exclamation, "Bah! Humbug!" captures his disdain for Christmas and all things joyful.

Scrooge's character is a critique of the greed and selfishness rampant in Victorian society but, due to the visits from the three spirits, Scrooge learns to value compassion, generosity and the joy of human connection. His transformation by the end of the story illustrates Dickens’ main message about the importance of redemption and how it is never too late to change.


Older Victorian gentleman, wrapped in chains and representing Jacob Marley from A Christmas Carol

Jacob Marley

Scrooge's former (and now deceased) business partner, Jacob Marley, visits Scrooge on Christmas Eve and sets the scene for the arrival of the three spirits.

Due to his own greed, Marley is now condemned to an eternity of suffering and his heavy chains, made of cash boxes, keys, padlocks, ledgers and heavy purses wrought in steel, symbolise the burden of his selfishness.

As Marley warns Scrooge about his impending fate, Dickens is also warning the reader about the consequences of a life consumed by material gain and the importance of prioritising kindness and compassion over wealth.


The Ghost of Christmas Past

Black and white photo of young girl, wearing Victorian clothes and representing the Ghost of Christmas Past from A Christmas Carol

The Ghost of Christmas Past is the first spirit to visit Scrooge and represents memory and the passage of time.

Taking Scrooge on a journey through his own past, the origins of Scrooge's bitterness and isolation are revealed and the visits to his childhood, his lost love and his early career illuminate the choices that led to his current state.

 Dickens uses this ghost to highlight the importance of understanding and reconciling with one’s past.

Large, cheerful giant, dressed in green, Victorian robes and holding a basket of fruit to represent the Ghost of Christmas Present from A Christmas Carol

The Ghost of Christmas Present


The second spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Present, embodies generosity, abundance and the joy of the current Christmas celebrations.


Clad in a green robe and surrounded by a feast, this cheerful giant shows Scrooge the warmth and happiness of those celebrating Christmas but also exposes the harsh realities of the Cratchit family's life.


By emphasising the contrast between Scrooge's wealth and the Cratchits' poverty, Dickens is using this ghost to teach Scrooge about the importance of empathy and the joy of giving.

Dark, hooded figure carrying a Victorian style lamp and representing the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come from A Christmas Carol

The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come


The final spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, is grim and silent and is often depicted as a cloaked figure resembling the Grim Reaper. Presented with a vision of his own lonely death and the realisation that he will not be mourned by anyone he knows if he continues on his current path, Scrooge vows to change his ways.


The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come represents the consequences of a life lived without compassion but also demonstrates the potential for redemption.


Middle aged, working class, Victorian man wearing a cap and representing Bob Cratchit from A Christmas Carol

Bob Cratchit


Scrooge's humble and dedicated but underpaid and overworked clerk, Bob Cratchit, embodies the struggles of the working poor in Victorian England.

Despite his hardships, Cratchit maintains a kind and optimistic outlook, particularly evident in his devotion to his family and his ailing son, Tiny Tim.

Cratchit’s character highlights the stark contrasts between the wealthy and the poor, and his gratitude and humility ultimately influence Scrooge’s transformation.

Young, Victorian boy with a crutch and representing Tiny Tim from A Christmas Carol

Tiny Tim


Tiny Tim, the youngest son of Bob Cratchit, is a symbol of innocence and vulnerability. He has had a difficult life and some serious health challenges but, despite his illness and physical limitations, he is always cheerful and full of hope.

His famous line, "God bless us, everyone!" epitomises the spirit of Christmas and reminds Scrooge and the reader to appreciate the blessings we have and extend a helping hand to those in need.

 Scrooge is deeply moved by Tiny Tim's plight and potential fate and it is these difficulties which play a crucial role in Scrooge’s decision to embrace generosity and kindness





Through a series of supernatural encounters, Scrooge goes on a journey that helps him learn compassion and forgiveness and leads to his ultimate redemption.




Scrooge’s encounters with the Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come help him to understand the impact of his actions on others and the joy he has denied himself over the years.

A heart shape, made by two hands, representing the theme of empathy in A Christmas Carol

Dickens weaves this theme of empathy throughout the novella to encourage Scrooge and the reader to consider the feelings, struggles, hopes and dreams of other people and develop a sense of social responsibility.

 Generosity and Kindness


Dickens uses the character of Bob Cratchit and his loving family to demonstrate the power of generosity and small acts of kindness, especially during the holiday season.

The Cratchit family don't have much money but, by witnessing their family interactions, Scrooge and the reader understand that even small, simple and thoughtful gestures and gifts can bring happiness and warmth to the lives of others.


Family and Community


The Cratchit family's humble and cheerful celebration of Christmas illustrates the importance of unity, support and togetherness. This theme is further emphasised by Scrooge's eventual reconnection with his family, especially his nephew Fred, which communicates the significance of our relationships with friends and family.



Victorian London, with Big Ben in the background, to represent the setting of A Christmas Carol

Social Inequality in Victorian England

Dickens addresses the social and economic inequalities of Victorian society where the wealthy enjoyed luxuries while the lower classes faced poverty and harsh living conditions.


Christmas Traditions


"A Christmas Carol" helped revive and popularise many Victorian customs that had fallen out of fashion, such as carol singing and feasting, but also influenced the future of Christmas-themed literature, and inspired numerous adaptations.


Charity and Philanthropy


Dickens was a passionate advocate for social reform and “A Christmas Carol” emphasises the importance of generosity, kindness and compassion, urging readers to recognise their duty towards those less fortunate.

Charles Dickens, the author of A Christmas Carol

The Author

Born in Portsmouth on 7th February 1812, Charles Dickens was the second of eight children and rose from a family plagued by financial insecurity to become a literary giant.  

Forced to leave school at the age of 12 to provide for his family, Dickens worked in a blacking factory. The harsh conditions heavily influenced his later works and instilled in him a lifelong concern for social justice and the plight of the poor.

Beginning his writing career as a journalist, his first major success came with the serialisation of "The Pickwick Papers" in 1836 and this was soon followed by a series of novels, including "Oliver Twist," "Nicholas Nickleby," "David Copperfield" and "Great Expectations.”

In 1843, he published “A Christmas Carol” which was an immediate success and has since become one of the most beloved Christmas stories of all time.

As a tireless advocate for social reform, Dickens used his fame to campaign for better conditions in workhouses, schools and prisons and his public readings of his works with their vivid descriptions of social inequality, child labour, poverty and the struggles faced by the poor sparked public awareness and calls for societal change.

After his death on 9th June 1870, he was buried in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey, a testament to his significant contributions to English literature.

His legacy endures through his timeless works and the profound social impact of his writing and "A Christmas Carol" has remained a cherished story throughout the generations.

Help your teenager to prepare for their GCSE English Literature exam with "A Christmas Carol: Exam Questions & Essay Plans" from EHS Masterclass.  

EHS Masterclass: A Christmas Carol - Exam Questions and Essay Plans

This comprehensive ebook includes: 

  • 8 carefully chosen extracts from the classic novella

  • 8 sample exam questions on some of the main themes of this text

  • 8 detailed essay plans. 

Each essay plan provides suggested content and a clear outline for responding to the exam questions, ensuring students feel more confident and prepared for this aspect of their GCSE English Literature exams.


Owner and Founder of English Home Studies

About the Author

I’m a private tutor, a former secondary school English Teacher and the founder of English Home Studies. In addition to offering 1:1 tuition sessions for students from 9 - 16 years old (Year 5 - Year 11), I create digital and printable revision guides and activity packs.

I often post advice and links to free and affordable English resources on the English Home Studies Facebook and Instagram pages but, if you have a child in KS3 or KS4, you might like to join one of my Facebook groups:

If you would like to find out more about my qualifications and experience or read some of the lovely reviews I've received from previous clients, please have a look around my website and, if you have any questions, please send me a message. Many thanks.


 English Home Studies logo of an adult sat at a desk next to a child, helping them with their studies.
bottom of page